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زبان انگلیسی در گناباد

زبان انگلیسی در گناباد

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بانام ویاد خدا
با سلام خدمت تمامی دوستداران زبان انگلیسی در داخل شهرستان گناباد و خارج ازشهرستان گناباد،همین طور که می دانید یکی اززبانهای مهمی که امروزه کاربرد های فراوانی دارد زبان انگلیسی میباشد.وحال سعی ما برآن است تا بتوانیم بابالا بردن دامنه ی لغات ودرکنارآن خواندن متن های کوچک این زبان را تقویت کنیم ،البته در ضمن سعی شده تا تحقیقاتی نیز به زبان انگلیسی درکنار آن ارائه شود.
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انجمن زبان پژوهان گناباد.

نمایشنامه ی انگلیسی برای دبیرستان(the name of story is Love's Labor’s Lost)

باسلام
همین طور که میدونید امروزه یکی از نیاز های مهم ما نوجوون هاوجوون ها در درس زبان انگلیسی نمایشنامه های مناسب برای دوره ی تحصیلیمونه ،از همین رو تصمیم بر این شد تا هر چند وقت نمایشنامه ی انگلیسی مناسب دوره ی دبیرستان به نمایش عمموم در بیاد تا شما عزیزان بتونید فن بیان و حافظه ی خودتون رو در زبان انگلیسی افزایش بدید.
در این قسمت نمایشنامه ای از نویسنده ی معروف انگلیسی یعنی شکسپیر قرار داده ایم.


by

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

Act I, Scene 1
The play begins with the King of Navarre declaring that he and his nobles, Longaville, Dumain, and Biron, need to be eternally remembered, even in death. The King proposes to accomplish this fame by forming "a little academe" in which the four men will cloister themselves in court and remain celibate for three years in order to diligently pursue their studies, thus accomplishing great learning and subsequent fame. Longaville is quick to comply to the king's plan and signs the document held out by his majesty, saying that for him, "Tis but a three years' fast." Dumain also signs his consent with ease, renouncing worldly pleasure and declaring the he may now be considered dead "to love, to wealth, to pomp". Biron, though having agreed to remain at the court of Navarre for the purpose of studying the art of living, objects to the "other strict observances," which he feels are foolish. He is not prepared to give up sensual pleasure for intellectual enrichment and states, "O, these are barren tasks, too hard to keep - Not to see ladies, study, fast, not sleep
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Biron cleverly argues with the King that study is worth nothing if it is merely textual and not experimental. He then goes on to read aloud the articles included in the agreement which state that if any woman ventures within a mile of the court, she will be penalized by the loss of her tongue. This, Biron believes is "a dangerous law against gentility." He then reads a second item, which states that any man seen talking to a woman must necessarily endure public shame of the highest degree possible. On reading this, Biron reminds the King of the upcoming visit by the Princess of France, knowing that the King will have to speak with the princess about political matters. The King, somewhat embarrassed, admits he will have to break this part of the oath from time to time from "mere necessity." Biron then prophesies that all four of the men will break their vows and states that "necessity will make us all for sworn/three thousand times within this three years' space." In spite of his arguments and at the urging of the other lords and the King, Biron signs the agreement to give up physical pleasures for intellectual growth
Biron asks the King what they may do for recreation since women are a pleasure unavailable to them. It is unanimously decided that Armado, the "refined traveler of Spain", will provide them with entertainment. As they continue to talk, a constable named Anthony Dull enters with a countryman named Costard. The constable carries a letter written by Armado, which accuses the countryman of seducing a woman in spite of the court declaration of abstinence. The accusing letter, addressed to the King, is written in a highly decorous style and spells out in detail the crime of which Costard is accused. Costard admits he knows about the law, but has never heard of it being enforced. The King pronounces his sentence, and Costard is sent to the custody of Armado
Notes
This opening scene functions as an introduction to the Themes and plot to follow. The proud King and his followers decide to form a small academy at court and devote themselves to learning in order to become famous and hopefully remembered immortally. They vow to sleep little, eat even less, and periodically fast. They adamantly swear off women and all forms of physical pleasure.

Furthermore, they agree that the mere presence of women in their company will become an abominable offense. Their goals are extreme, impractical, and severe. In short, they set themselves up for hilarious failure that the audience can only begin to anticipate

From the beginning, the King's plan spells failure. The search for immortality is a mythological construct, a historically chronicled effort which inevitably leads to the failure and consequent humbling of the one who seeks to live forever. From the beginning, the audience knows that the King and his overreaching lords will never succeed in depriving themselves of physical pleasure for three long years. Like Biron, the audience can anticipate hundred of ways in which the lords will fail and hundreds of excuses for their failure. The first comes when the King admits, out of necessity, he will have to communicate with women, from time to time, over matters of state. But all the men are human, and their attempts to master desires of the flesh are bound to fail. Even though Biron has predicted failure and the audience can anticipate failure, great enthusiasm for the project continues to build as the first scene nears its close
The conversation among the King and his lords is interrupted by the appearance of Constable Hull, who has Costard in tow. Hull carries a pretentious letter written by Armando and addressed to the King. The letter details Costard's crime of seducing a country maiden. During the conversation that ensues, Costard tries to deny that he has violated any law. Their quibbling is humorous:

King: It was proclaimed a year's imprisonment to be taken with a wench.
Costard: I was taken with none, Sir I was taken with a damsel. King: Well, it was proclaimed 'damsel'.
Costard: This was no damsel, neither, Sir. She was a virgin. King: It is so varied, too, for it was proclaimed 'virgin'. Costard: If it were, I deny her virginity. I was taken with a maid. King: This 'maid' will not serve your turn, Sir.
Costard: This maid will serve my turn, Sir.
At the end of their quibbling, Costard resigns himself to some form of pu ment although he knows the law about abstinence, like the oath of the lords and the King, is unrealistic and extreme
In addition to using language as word play, as seen in Costard's arguments, Shakespeare also uses language to create mood. That this play will be comic in nature is evident in the conversation between Biron and the lords. The lords seem to take very seriously their vows, and when Biron hesitates, they try with great effort to convince him. But Biron is amused, skeptical, and realistic. He plays with his friends, poking gentle fun at their highly idealistic and impractical goals. Some of the greatest use of rhyme in the play occurs in this scene, when the King and the lords take turns trying to convince Biron sign the oath. Each man's line, uttered in perfect rhyme, is a response or rejoinder to the line preceding it. But when all have spoken their mind on Biron's reluctance, he responds with a completely unrelated line about spring and green geese breeding. When questioned about his bizarre response, Biron says his words are spoken for the sake of rhyme, rather than as part of the actual conversation. In essence, Biron is saying the physical arrangement of the language--the rhyme scheme--is more important than the intellectual content of the words. It is again poking fun through allusion at the King's plan. It is a comic moment, but it predicts and affirms what Biron has already predicted, that tangible physical desires are stronger than abstract intellectual ideals
Shakespeare also masterfully uses language to distinguish between various groups of characters that he introduces in the first scene. Whereas the young noblemen speak in well-formed verse among themselves, they switch to prose on the arrival of the conventionally "low" characters, Costard and Dull. As always, the use of verse and prose is Shakespeare's way of contrasting different types of people, usually the upper classes and the lower, or the major characters and the fools. Both these forms of language are also compared to the pretentious language of Armado's letter, written in a style that is excessively ornate, especially in its praise of the King. Armado's letter seems absurdly ambitious and excessive. Interestingly, its extremity is reflective of the extremity of the King's goals. The point Shakespeare is trying to make is that the academic absurdities of the Kingdom of Navarre will ultimately prove as sterile as Armado's fanciful rhetoric
Act I, Scene 2
This scene opens with a conversation between the verbose Spa traveler, Armado, and his flighty page, Moth. Armado confesses that he is in love with Jaquenetta, the woman whom Costard was accused of trying to seduce. Most of the conversation revolves around Armado's justification of his feelings, since he, too, has pledged celibacy for three years. To make himself feel better, he instructs Moth to tell him the names of great and worthy men who have succumbed to the power of love despite their best intentions. When Moth supplies him with names and details, Armado's drooping ego is boosted. Likening himself to these heroes of the past, Armado begins to feel better about his weakening resolve

ادامه مطلب نمایشنامه ی انگلیسی برای دبیرستان(the name of story is Love's Labor’s Lost)